Since unification Germany has been performing sustainable economic growth. Analysis of latest macroeconomic trends in Germany may help us to see economic theories in practise. This paper aims to assess German economy within the frame of Solow growth model. It starts with identifying the state of economy, and then proceeds to the analysis of short-run and long-run effects of unemployment change on the performance of the economy. The measures for optimal saving rate at steady-state and the discussion of the outcomes of increased saving rate conclude the essay.
The research explores the comparative advantages of Uzbekistan in exporting tourism and travel (T&T) services. Traveler survey and expert interviews were conducted in order to collect primary data and qualitatively define the factors of influencing the competitiveness of the republic in T&T services. Secondary data for a set of variables were collected and used for comparative advantage measurements and regression analyses. The qualitative study showed significant advantage in cost of traveling and historical/cultural heritage for Uzbekistan. Empirical analyses revealed the importance of income, population and previous tourist visits in determining the competitiveness of a developing nation as a tourism destination.
Keywords: International Trade, trade in T&T services, comparative advantage(s), Revealed Comparative Advantage index, regression analysis, Uzbekistan.
The closer two extremes – the sharper distinction between them
A couple of weeks ago I was riding a bus to my university. A quick news line was being delivered on the in-bus TV. Among many political news, there was reported the attempt of European Union to establish single constitution for all member countries. I would stay completely indifferent, if a friend of mine, who is always interested in politics, didn’t draw my attention to the case.
– Globalization, – he said with underlining diction. He seemed to have expressed in this only word everything he meant to say. But I was questioned by the occurrence that was granted with a name of so wide-range sense.
What is globalization? Where does it come from and where does it end? Does it bring prosperity for the mankind as some people think and believe, or is it so harmful and destructive as the others blame it to be?..
I decided to find out as trustworthy as possible answers to the above and many other questions. Some were answered, while others remained open. I pressed my concentration on one side of the problem – I tried to understand the behaviour of cultures towards globalization. And to the finish line I came with several basic conclusions, which can, in certain level, explain the role and the position of globalization in our lives, and its impact on our cultures.
A problem is a paradox until… solution .
Is climate changing? Most of respondents may answer ‘yes’ – the very popular evidence pointed by them will be global warming and other ecologic disorders of our time. But is it really changing? Why not it is being changed? To this question many residents of our planet may answer with crossing question – “how is it being changed? And amazingly, the reaction may even be “by whom is it being changed?”
Fortunately, since we understood that climate is influenced by other forces than nature, we started to ask questions. And to the finish line of today science of ecology we came with the paradoxical conclusion - our life is changing the climate and the climate is changing our life. So, there is a closed cycle of our activities and their reflections in climate.
Most of us think that less industrialized nations of the world has little influence on global climate. In this essay I provide an opposite argument to that surface consideration in an example of my own country. Yes, there is sharp affect on climate in agricultural countries as well and the consequences are maybe more dramatic than in nations of industrial leadership.
The main conflict is between agriculture of the state and the climate of the region. Either party is interested in enhancing the situation as prosperity of both depends on complicated interrelation. So, in the first part the essay in detail describes the existing and potential problems of today, and possible solutions for them are provided next.
Экономика – абсолютно не могла бы существовать без потребления. Все согласятся, что в любой экономической системе спрос первичен – а предложение явление вторичное, ответное на спрос. Из этого можно заключить, что за рычагом любого экономического явления стоит потребитель – вернее, его поведение. Следовательно, чтобы лучше понять экономику, нужно лучше понять поведение потребителя.
Экономика не исходит из центрального банка, министерства финансов или другого ведомства, которое отвечает за определённое направление экономической политики правительства. Экономика всецело стоит на наших поведенческих привычках как потребителей, работодателей, производителей и налогоплательщиков. Политика или стратегия управляющего органа не меняет что-либо в экономике – всё меняет отношение или реакция рядовых потребителей на эти меры. В этом плане та или иная попытка повлиять на экономику, предпринимаемая со стороны центральных экономических ведомств, не всегда даёт желаемые результаты. Нет сомнений в том, что любая мера нацелена на улучшение и развитие экономического благосостояния всех нас – но здесь от внимания ускользает один довольно весомый фактор: эти меры почти во всех случаях имеют принудительный характер. К сожалению, мы – люди – как социальные существа, всегда расположены принимать любое принудительное влияние противостоянием. Можно сказать, что мы запрограммированы на это.
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